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Guide Perspectives on Leadership: From the Science of Management to Its Spiritual Heart

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Sale Title. Available for Course Adoption. Rothwell, H.

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Downloadable File. Printed Material. Socially-oriented and sensitive to others. Provides an informal network of communication and support that spreads beyond the formal activities of the team. Concern for team spirit may divert from getting the job done. The Organiser who turns plans into tasks. Conservative, hard-working, full of common sense, conscientious and methodical.

Lacks flexibility, and unresponsive to new ideas. Makes sure the team delivers. An orderly, anxious perfectionist who worries about everything. Good at follow-up and meeting deadlines. Different roles will of course be important at different times, and high-performing teams will normally be aware as to which role s should dominate at any particular time.

Belbin roles can of course be linked to personality types e.

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Myers Briggs Type Indicators , where common words such as 'Extrovert' and 'Analyst' will be found - but remember that Belbin roles are less definitive. Ideally maximal group effectiveness is achieved when the needs and expectations of the organisation are one and the same as those of the individuals:. The list below suggests the main elements to encourage good team working but it is not exclusive. There may be other elements that affect particular teams that are not on this list:. Handy's physical factors affecting group effectiveness 7. Immediate constraints - these set the scenario for the group, the closer they match the expectations of the members, the more effective the group.

Small groups tend to be more cohesive and encourage full participation as opposed to large groups, although there are advantages and disadvantages in both.

Larger groups have a greater diversity of the talent, skills, knowledge etc. A group with knowledgeable members does better in progressing a task than an inexperienced group. A group with a wide range of talents represented in membership does better than one with a narrow range. In a production line, technology often disperses employees and makes group cohesiveness difficult. If task is urgent e. Close geographical proximity, preferably in the same building, helps the cohesiveness and effectiveness of a group.

Bureaucratic organisations prefer formally set up groups. Matrix organisations prefer project led groups and are often more participative in style and therefore suit organisations where large numbers of professionals are employed. These factors tend to be more modifiable than those set out under contract of members and leadership.

Note all factors in 1 may have been set up by a supervisor, who is by definition external to the group. Success or otherwise primarily depends on individual motivation and people's perception of the importance of the task and their role within it. Adequate and timely feedback is important, together with the individual's satisfaction with the membership of the group.

This depends on leadership, group motivation, and appropriate rules and procedures. Leadership depends on the optimum mix of attention to task and attention to people, taking the total situation into account. Group motivation arises not just from individual motivation, but also the ability of leadership to develop a team spirit and obtain a high level of commitment from team members. This high level of interaction encourages the openness of the team to discuss and to become more compatible with pursuit of task.

Appropriate rules and procedures are necessary to control decision making and conflict. These can be simple, but may need to be more complex if the task is part of a multi-faceted complex goal or organisation.

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Perspectives on Leadership: From the Science of Management to Its Spiritual Heart

Whether formal or informal groups exist, it is important to have knowledge of behaviour within and between groups in organisations. Individual motivation. Group leadership. The first systematic study of inter-group interaction was carried out by Sherif et al While it was removed from the arena of large organisations, two groups were studied in a boy's recreational camp; it was an example of a planned observation study. The two groups were encouraged to develop separate identities. The following observations were made between the groups:. Hostility increased as communication between them decreased; this encouraged negative stereotyping of each other to arise.

Sherif 8 , as well as other researchers, has followed up the resolution of inter-group conflict and recommendations for organisations:. Encourage and reward groups on their contribution to the organisational goals 'the common good' rather than just to individual group goals. Stimulate high level of interaction and communication between groups and provide rewards for inter-group collaboration.

Encourage movement of staff across group boundaries in order to increase mutual understanding of problems. Communication in groups is complex and without careful organisation can have a negative impact on the outputs from the group. Guide behaviours facilitate interaction by specifying the kinds of reactions expected or acceptable in particular situations.

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Group norms exist when:. The term was devised in the s by the American psychologist Irving Janis , who analysed group decision making in the Bay of Pigs fiasco. He defined group think as a form of decision making characterised by uncritical acceptance of a prevailing point of view. It is a form of collective delusion, where bizarre policies are rationalised collectively and contradictory evidence is discredited. Members of the group suffer an illusion of both invulnerability and morality, and construct negative stereotypes of outsiders. In the health service this may happen where a health authority is under great outside pressure because of e.

Groups should always consider unpopular alternatives, assigning the role of devil's advocate to several strong members of the group. Sometimes it is useful to divide the group into two separate deliberative bodies as feasibilities are evaluated.

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Spend a sizable amount of time surveying all warning signals from rival group and organisations. After reaching a preliminary consensus on a decision, all residual doubts should be expressed and the matter reconsidered. Tentative decisions should be discussed with trusted colleagues not in the decision-making group.

The organisation should routinely follow the administrative practice of establishing several independent decision-making groups to work on the same critical issue or policy. An agreement - or at least no one disagrees so strongly that they feel unable to accept the consensus view! Consensus development conferences were started in US in and were a mixture of three activities:.

Consultants in Communicable Disease have used this approach, for example around an outbreak of a new disease such as SARS. Other examples include:. Consensus development is not a substitute for scientific research, but a method of assessing current opinions. The consensus view is just as likely to reflect collective ignorance as wisdom.

A consensus technique cannot generate additional knowledge.


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A Delphi survey is a structured group interaction process that is directed in "rounds" of opinion collection and feedback Turoff and Hiltz, Opinion collection is achieved by conducting a series of surveys using questionnaires. The result of each survey will be presented to the group and the questionnaire used in the next round is built upon the result of the previous round It is most useful as a way of collecting and distilling the opinions of experts.

Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Perspectives on Leadership by Gilbert W. In tracing the intellectual roots of business leadership over the last one hundred years, award winning author Gilbert W. Fairholm argues that until recently, spirit and soul have been absent from the major models. After outlining the elements of the five major ideas about leadership, he goes on to define and make operational a new focus that must exist in order to truly u In tracing the intellectual roots of business leadership over the last one hundred years, award winning author Gilbert W.

After outlining the elements of the five major ideas about leadership, he goes on to define and make operational a new focus that must exist in order to truly understand the leaders' role in relation to workers. The study begins with scientific management and traces the evolution of leadership ideas through the quality movement, on to values-, culture-, and trust-based leadership models, and concluding with an emphasis on spirit in the workplace.